Time Spread Explained

Best Binary Options Brokers 2020:
  • Binarium
    Binarium

    1st Place! Best Binary Broker 2020!
    Best Choice for Beginners — Free Education + Free Demo Acc!
    Sign-up and Get Big Bonus:

  • Binomo
    Binomo

    2nd place! Good choice!

Time Spread

The time spread refers to a family of spreads involving options of the same underlying stock, same strike prices, but different expiration month. They can be created with either all calls or all puts.

Also known as calendar spread or horizontal spread. For more on this strategy, see calendar spread.

You May Also Like

Continue Reading.

Buying Straddles into Earnings

Buying straddles is a great way to play earnings. Many a times, stock price gap up or down following the quarterly earnings report but often, the direction of the movement can be unpredictable. For instance, a sell off can occur even though the earnings report is good if investors had expected great results. [Read on. ]

Writing Puts to Purchase Stocks

If you are very bullish on a particular stock for the long term and is looking to purchase the stock but feels that it is slightly overvalued at the moment, then you may want to consider writing put options on the stock as a means to acquire it at a discount. [Read on. ]

What are Binary Options and How to Trade Them?

Also known as digital options, binary options belong to a special class of exotic options in which the option trader speculate purely on the direction of the underlying within a relatively short period of time. [Read on. ]

Investing in Growth Stocks using LEAPS® options

If you are investing the Peter Lynch style, trying to predict the next multi-bagger, then you would want to find out more about LEAPS® and why I consider them to be a great option for investing in the next Microsoft®. [Read on. ]

Effect of Dividends on Option Pricing

Cash dividends issued by stocks have big impact on their option prices. This is because the underlying stock price is expected to drop by the dividend amount on the ex-dividend date. [Read on. ]

Bull Call Spread: An Alternative to the Covered Call

As an alternative to writing covered calls, one can enter a bull call spread for a similar profit potential but with significantly less capital requirement. In place of holding the underlying stock in the covered call strategy, the alternative. [Read on. ]

Dividend Capture using Covered Calls

Some stocks pay generous dividends every quarter. You qualify for the dividend if you are holding on the shares before the ex-dividend date. [Read on. ]

Leverage using Calls, Not Margin Calls

To achieve higher returns in the stock market, besides doing more homework on the companies you wish to buy, it is often necessary to take on higher risk. A most common way to do that is to buy stocks on margin. [Read on. ]

Best Binary Options Brokers 2020:
  • Binarium
    Binarium

    1st Place! Best Binary Broker 2020!
    Best Choice for Beginners — Free Education + Free Demo Acc!
    Sign-up and Get Big Bonus:

  • Binomo
    Binomo

    2nd place! Good choice!

Day Trading using Options

Day trading options can be a successful, profitable strategy but there are a couple of things you need to know before you use start using options for day trading. [Read on. ]

What is the Put Call Ratio and How to Use It

Learn about the put call ratio, the way it is derived and how it can be used as a contrarian indicator. [Read on. ]

Understanding Put-Call Parity

Put-call parity is an important principle in options pricing first identified by Hans Stoll in his paper, The Relation Between Put and Call Prices, in 1969. It states that the premium of a call option implies a certain fair price for the corresponding put option having the same strike price and expiration date, and vice versa. [Read on. ]

Understanding the Greeks

In options trading, you may notice the use of certain greek alphabets like delta or gamma when describing risks associated with various positions. They are known as “the greeks”. [Read on. ]

Valuing Common Stock using Discounted Cash Flow Analysis

Since the value of stock options depends on the price of the underlying stock, it is useful to calculate the fair value of the stock by using a technique known as discounted cash flow. [Read on. ]

Spread Definition

What Is a Spread?

A spread can have several meanings in finance. Basically, however, they all refer to the difference between two prices, rates or yields.

In one of the most common definitions, the spread is the gap between the bid and the ask prices of a security or asset, like a stock, bond or commodity. This is known as a bid-ask spread.

Spread can also refer to the difference in a trading position – the gap between a short position (that is, selling) in one futures contract or currency and a long position (that is, buying) in another. This is officially known as a spread trade.

In underwriting, the spread can mean the difference between the amount paid to the issuer of a security and the price paid by the investor for that security—that is, the cost an underwriter pays to buy an issue, compared to the price at which the underwriter sells it to the public.

In lending, the spread can also refer to the price a borrower pays above a benchmark yield to get a loan. If the prime interest rate is 3%, for example and a borrower gets a mortgage charging a 5% rate, the spread is 2%.

Key Takeaways

  • In finance, a spread refers to the difference between two prices, rates or yields
  • One of the most common types is the bid-ask spread, which refers to the gap between the bid (from buyers) and the ask (from sellers) prices of a security or asset
  • Spread can also refer to the difference in a trading position – the gap between a short position (that is, selling) in one futures contract or currency and a long position (that is, buying) in another

Bid-Ask Spread

The bid-ask spread is also known as the bid-offer spread and buy-sell. This sort of asset spread is influenced by a number of factors:

  1. Supply or “float” (the total number of shares outstanding that are available to trade)
  2. Demand or interest in a stock
  3. Total trading activity of the stock

For securities like futures contracts, options, currency pairs and stocks, the bid-offer spread is the difference between the prices given for an immediate order – the ask – and an immediate sale – the bid. For a stock option, the spread would be the difference between the strike price and the market value.

One of the uses of the bid-ask spread is to measure the liquidity of the market and the size of the transaction cost of the stock. For example, on Jan. 8, 2020 the bid price for Alphabet Inc., Google’s parent company, was $1,073.60 and the ask price was $1,074.41. The spread is 80 cents, or $.80. This indicates that Alphabet is a highly liquid stock, with considerable trading volume.

Spread Trade

The spread trade is also called the relative value trade. Spread trades are the act of purchasing one security and selling another related security as a unit. Usually, spread trades are done with options or futures contracts. These trades are executed to produce an overall net trade with a positive value called the spread.

Spreads are priced as a unit or as pairs in future exchanges to ensure the simultaneous buying and selling of a security. Doing so eliminates execution risk wherein one part of the pair executes but another part fails.

Yield Spread

The yield spread is also called the credit spread. The yield spread shows the difference between the quoted rates of return between two different investment vehicles. These vehicles usually differ regarding credit quality.

Some analysts refer to the yield spread as the “yield spread of X over Y.” This is usually the yearly percentage return on investment of one financial instrument minus the annual percentage return on investment of another.

Option-Adjusted Spread

To discount a security’s price and match it to the current market price, the yield spread must be added to a benchmark yield curve. This adjusted price is called option-adjusted spread. This is usually used for mortgage-backed securities (MBS), bonds, interest rate derivatives and options.

For securities with cash flows that are separate from future interest rate movements, the option-adjusted spread becomes the same as the Z-spread.

Z-Spread

The Z-spread is also called the Z SPRD, yield curve spread and zero-volatility spread. The Z-spread is used for mortgage-backed securities. It is the spread that results from zero-coupon treasury yield curves which are needed for discounting pre-determined cash flow schedule to reach its current market price. This kind of spread is also used in credit default swaps (CDS) to measure credit spread.

Bid-Ask Spread

What is a Bid-Ask Spread?

A bid-ask spread is the amount by which the ask price exceeds the bid price for an asset in the market. The bid-ask spread is essentially the difference between the highest price that a buyer is willing to pay for an asset and the lowest price that a seller is willing to accept. An individual looking to sell will receive the bid price while one looking to buy will pay the ask price.

Bid-Ask Spread

Understanding Bid-Ask Spread

A securities price is the market’s perception of its value at any given point in time and is unique. To understand why there is a “bid” and an “ask,” one must factor in the two major players in any market transaction, namely the price taker (trader) and the market maker (counterparty).

Market makers, many of which may be employed by brokerages, offer to sell securities at a given price (the ask price) and will also bid to purchase securities at a given price (the bid price). When an investor initiates a trade they will accept one of these two prices depending on whether they wish to buy the security (ask price) or sell the security (bid price). The difference between these two, the spread, is the principal transaction cost of trading (outside commissions), and it is collected by the market maker through the natural flow or processing orders at the bid and ask prices. This is what financial brokerages mean when they state that their revenues are derived from traders “crossing the spread.”

The bid-ask spread can be considered a measure of the supply and demand for a particular asset. Because the bid can be said to represent demand and the ask to represent the supply for an asset, it would be true that when these two prices expand further apart the price action reflects a change in supply and demand.

The depth of the “bids” and the “asks” can have a significant impact on the bid-ask spread. The spread may widen significantly if fewer participants place limit orders to buy a security (thus generating fewer bid prices) or if fewer sellers place limit orders to sell.

Market makers and professional traders who recognize imminent risk in the markets may also widen the difference between the best bid and the best ask they are willing to offer at a given moment. If all market makers do this on a given security, then the quoted bid-ask spread will reflect a larger than usual size. Some high-frequency traders and market makers attempt to make money by exploiting changes in the bid-ask spread.

Key Takeaways

  • The bid-ask spread is essentially the difference between the highest price that a buyer is willing to pay for an asset and the lowest price that a seller is willing to accept.
  • The spread is the transaction cost. Price takers buy at the ask price and sell at the bid price but the market maker buys at the bid price and sells at the ask price.
  • The bid represents demand and the ask represents supply for an asset.
  • The bid-ask spread is the de facto measure of market liquidity.

The Bid-Ask Spread’s Relation to Liquidity

The size of the bid-ask spread from one asset to another differs mainly because of the difference in liquidity of each asset. The bid-ask spread is the de facto measure of market liquidity. Certain markets are more liquid than others and that should be reflected in their lower spreads. Essentially, transaction initiators (price takers) demand liquidity while counterparties (market makers) supply liquidity.

For example, currency is considered the most liquid asset in the world and the bid-ask spread in the currency market is one of the smallest (one-hundredth of a percent); in other words, the spread can be measured in fractions of pennies. On the other hand, less liquid assets, such as small-cap stocks, may have spreads that are equivalent to 1 to 2% of the asset’s lowest ask price.

Bid-ask spreads can also reflect the market maker’s perceived risk in offering a trade. For example, options or futures contracts may have bid-ask spreads that represent a much larger percentage of their price than a forex or equities trade. The width of the spread might be based not only on liquidity, but on how much the price could rapidly change.

Bid-Ask Spread Example

If the bid price for a stock is $19 and the ask price for the same stock is $20, then the bid-ask spread for the stock in question is $1. The bid-ask spread can also be stated in percentage terms; it is customarily calculated as a percentage of the lowest sell price or ask price. For the stock in the example above, the bid-ask spread in percentage terms would be calculated as $1 divided by $20 (the bid-ask spread divided by the lowest ask price) to yield a bid-ask spread of 5% ($1 / $20 x 100). This spread would close if a potential buyer offered to purchase the stock at a higher price or if a potential seller offered to sell the stock at a lower price.

Elements of the Bid-Ask Spread

Some of the key elements to the bid-ask spread include a highly liquid market for any security in order to ensure an ideal exit point to book a profit. Secondly, there should be some friction in the supply and demand for that security in order to create a spread. Traders should use a limit order rather than a market order; meaning the trader should decide the entry point so that they don’t miss the spread opportunity. There is a cost involved with the bid-ask spread, as two trades are being conducted simultaneously. Finally, bid-ask spread trades can be done in most kinds of securities— t he most popular being foreign exchange and commodities.

Best Binary Options Brokers 2020:
  • Binarium
    Binarium

    1st Place! Best Binary Broker 2020!
    Best Choice for Beginners — Free Education + Free Demo Acc!
    Sign-up and Get Big Bonus:

  • Binomo
    Binomo

    2nd place! Good choice!

Like this post? Please share to your friends:
Binary Options Trading Wiki
Leave a Reply

;-) :| :x :twisted: :smile: :shock: :sad: :roll: :razz: :oops: :o :mrgreen: :lol: :idea: :grin: :evil: :cry: :cool: :arrow: :???: :?: :!: